Want to know more?
You may be interested in our EMF and Pregnancy white paper, which covers a more extensive set of scientific studies on this topic.
Note: some of the papers listed on this page are not available online in their entirety, but in such cases we're happy to provide them to you upon request.
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You may also be interested in the following resources:
The EMR Policy Institute website includes updates on cell phone use and its effect on the human body. The Institute's mission is to advance sound electro-magnetic radiation policy.
The Cell Phone Poisoning of America, an extensively researched report on cell phone radiation written by Lynn Quiring, Rph, CCN, NMD. The report is in PDF format.
The Citizens for Safe Technology reports on symptoms of ill health reported by people exposed to wireless technologies worldwide, including cell phones and cell towers, wireless internet (wi-fi), microwaves, and more.
ElectroSensitivity.org is dedicated to people with sensitivity or allergy to a particular source of electricity.
W.E.E.P., a Canadian independent foundation, focuses on initiatives that bring awareness, change, and entrepreneurial activity around the issue of safe electromagnetic emissions.
Physicians and Scientists for Responsible Application of Science and Technology (PSRAST) maintains a website on cell phone safety.
Research on electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pregnancy
Scientific studies: effects of EMF during pregnancy
Whether you're pregnant now, hoping to become pregnant and concerned about your reproductive system, or a family member or friend of an expecting mom, the following scientific findings surrounding EMF and pregnancy, including cell phones and pregnancy, from respected journals in the fields of science and medicine may be of great interest to you.
Could microwaves used during pregnancy be associated with children's asthma?
Source: Time Healthland, August 2, 2011
"Exposure to electromagnetic fields has been linked to a number of health problems, including cancer and immune system and reproductive abnormalities, and now the latest research adds another concern to the list: childhood asthma.
"In the first study of its kind, scientists strapped magnetic field monitors on pregnant women to determine their level of exposure, and studied whether it was associated with the risk of asthma in their children. They found that children born to women with the highest levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) — including from microwaves, hair dryers and power lines — had a more than three-fold higher rate of asthma compared to those whose moms had the lowest exposure."
EMF exposure may contribute to childhood asthma
Source: Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, August 1, 2011
In this study, asthma was clinically diagnosed among 626 children who were followed up for as long as 13 years, providing new epidemiological evidence that high maternal EMF levels in pregnancy may increase the risk of asthma in offspring. All participating pregnant mothers carried a meter to measure their MF levels during pregnancy.
Read more: Maternal Exposure to Magnetic Fields During Pregnancy in Relation to the Risk of Asthma in Offspring by D.K. Li, H. Chen, R. Odouli
EMF may affect the reproductive systems of males and females
Sources: PLoS One, July 2009; Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, January 2010
Electromagnetic fields have been shown to have a significant adverse (negative) effect on reproductive systems in both males and females. In the study published in Ecotoxicology, developing eggs of D. magna (a type of water flea) exposed to EMF showed accelerated rates of embryonic development. Females that developed from exposed eggs showed deteriorated production characteristics in their first brood.
Read more: Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro (Public Library of Science) by G.N. De Iuliis, R.J. Newey, B.V King, R.J. Aitken
EMF exposure has possibly harmful effects on the brains of unborn babies
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research, August 2009
Studies pointedly suggest there are clear and serious detrimental effects on the brains of fetuses due to EMF exposure.
Read more: Possible promotion of neuronal differentiation in fetal rat brain neural progenitor cells after sustained exposure to static magnetism by N. Nakamichi, Y. Ishioka, T. Hirai, S. Ozawa, M. Tachibana, N. Nakamura, T. Takarada, Y. Yoneda
Exposure to EMF could adversely affect DNA
Source: Pathophysiology, August 2009
Several in vitro and in vivo studies have observed the occurrence of DNA and micronucleus (MN) generation, which is a well-accepted index for genotoxicity evaluation, after EMF exposure. These cellular processes are critical during zygotic, embryonic, and fetal (unborn baby) development phases, and for the proper function of the maternal reproductive tract in general.
Read more: Disturbance of the immune system by electromagnetic fields - a potentially underlying cause for cellular damage and tissue repair reduction which could lead to disease and impairment by O. Johansson
Cell phone use may be linked to cancer
Sources: International Journal of Oncology, July 2009; Neuroepidemiology, August 2010
In this study and its follow-up, scientists investigated the risk for malignant brain tumors from the use of cordless and cell phones, and found the use of cell phones presented an increased risk for the disease. The later study confirmed the authors' previous results of an association between cell phone use and malignant brain tumors. The authors also concluded the risk increased with the cumulative number of lifetime hours for use, and found no clear association with the use of cordless phones. Our thought? If cell phone use can cause brain cancer in humans, it may not be beneficial for a developing fetus in the very beginning of life.
Read more: Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours by L. Hardell and M. Carlberg
Read more: Mobile phone use and the risk for malignant brain tumors: a case-control study on deceased cases and controls by L. Hardell, M. Carlberg, and Mild K. Hansson
EMF exposure may contribute to osteoporosis
Sources: Bioelectromagnetics, October 2006; Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, May 2010
The first study below focused on animals exposed in the womb and shortly after birth to electric fields.
Read more: DEXA analysis on the bones of rats exposed in utero and neonatally to static and 50 Hz electric fields by B. Okudan, A.U. Keskin, M.A. Aydin, G. Cesur, S. Cömlekçi, H. Süslü
Read more: Bone mineral density and mobile phones by Y.P. Liu and G.R. Yu
EMF exposure may contribute to autism
Sources: Medical Hypotheses Journal, March 10, 2006 and 2004
EMF exposure may contribute to autism in children exposed during pregnancy.
EMF exposure could be associated with miscarriage in humans
Sources: Epidemiology, January 2002
To study the effect of magnetic fields on the risk of miscarriage, the authors conducted a study of 969 pregnant women less than 10 weeks pregnant in the San Francisco area. That study found miscarriage risk increased with magnetic field exposure with a threshold of around 16 milligauss.
Read more: A population-based prospective cohort study of personal exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage by D.K. Li, R. Odouli, S. Wi, T. Janevic, I. Golditch, T.D. Bracken, R. Senior, R. Rankin, R. Iriye
Electric power EMF possibly associated with cancer in children
Sources: Cancer Causes Control, August 2009 and June 1999
In the first study listed below, scientists examined the contribution of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) shortly before and during pregnancy among sewing machine operators in two Canadian provinces on the incidence of childhood brain tumors. They observed an increased risk for astroglial tumors as well as all childhood brain tumors. In the second study listed below, scientists found an association between magnetic field exposure from a personal monitor worn by young children and an increased risk of leukemia, with the risk more pronounced for children less than 6 years of age.
Read more: Maternal occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and the risk of brain cancer in the offspring by P. Li, J. McLaughlin, C. Infante-Rivard
Read more: Childhood leukemia and personal monitoring of residential exposures to electric and magnetic fields in Ontario, Canada by L.M. Green, A.B. Miller, D.A. Agnew, M.L. Greenberg, J. Li, P.J. Villeneuve, R. Tibshirani
EMF exposure might enhance the growth rates of some cancers
Source: Gynecologic Oncology, October 1998
This study evaluated EMF effects on the in vitro growth response of human cell lines isolated from reproductive tract tissues, and found that continuous exposure to EMF can enhance the growth rates of cancer cells in some human epithelial cancers.
Read more: Selective potentiation of gynecologic cancer cell growth in vitro by electromagnetic fields by J.M. Watson, E.A. Parrish, C.A. Rinehart
EMF strength of common household appliances versus government regulations
Sources vary, but the table below shows a rough estimate of electromagnetic field strengths of some common household appliances, which are often a significant fraction of—and sometimes are even much higher than—the government cutoff level of 100 µT.
It is a serious concern that no such similar standards have yet been established specifically for women who are pregnant, nor for their developing babies in the womb.
|Electric appliance||3 cm distance (µT)||30 cm distance (µT)|
|Hair dryer||6 - 2000||0.01 - 7|
|Electric shaver||15 - 1500||0.08 - 9|
|Vacuum cleaner||200 - 800||2 - 20|
|Flourescent light||40 - 400||0.5 - 2|
|Microwave oven||73 - 200||4 - 8|
|Portable radio||16 - 56||1|
|Electric oven||1 - 50||0.15 - 0.5|
|Washing machine||0.8 - 50||0.15 - 3|
|Iron||8 - 30||0.12 - 0.3|
|Dishwasher||3.5 - 20||0.6 - 3|
|Computer||0.5 - 30||<0.01|
|Refrigerator||0.5 - 1.7||0.01 - 0.25|
|Color TV||2.5 - 50||0.04 - 2|
The research shown above suggests EFM exposure limits may need to be set much lower for pregnant women than the 100 µT set for the general population.
EMF shielding helps reduce EMF toxicity and shortened life spans in animals
Source: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, June 2010
This study found that exposure to cell phone EMF frequencies (from cell phone antennae 140 meters away) prior to birth and just after birth significantly decreased the life span of animals. However, fatality rates dropped from as high as 90% down to 4% for animals protected by EMF shielding.
EMF pollution, use of a cell phone and pregnancy
Pregnant women can shield themselves and their unborn babies from a substantial amount of EMF pollution with the EMF-reducing fabric used in Protec's maternity garments.
Browse our EMF-reducing maternity tank tops
Browse our EMF-reducing maternity wrap tops
Note: these statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Statements are not intended to constitute professional advice for treatment of any disease but are for educational purposes. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, mitigate, or prevent any disease.